Bhirrana - Wikipedia. Bhirrana or Birhana is a small village located in Fatehabad District, in the Indian state of Haryana. The site is one of the many sites seen along the channels of the ancient Saraswati riverine systems, now represented by the seasonal Ghaggar River which flows in modern Haryana from Nahan to Sirsa. The mound measures 1. Excavations. Several publications have been written on it by Rao et al. According to Rao, Hakra Ware has been found at Bhirrana, and is pre- Harappan, dating to the 8th- 7th millenium BCE. Hakra Ware culture is a material culture which is contemporaneous with the early Harappan Ravi phase culture (3.
The largest source for Expert content on the Internet that helps users answer questions, solve problems, learn something new or find inspiration. KeyHolderFinder is a website specifically designed for people into the chastity lifestyle who are either interested in finding a keyholder or are keyholders looking.
Www.seniordatingagency-india.com senior dating in india- online dating site for meeting singles over 40 for friendship and love in india. 28 years, Sector 22, Chandigarh. I am 25 year, 5'7" boy lives Chandigarh all alone, basically from Kashmir, a bit shy but an amazing kisser. Love cuddles, body play. Tweet Get ready for the ultimate online dating experience at FACEBOOK OF SEX! Chat with the world’s sexiest girls, couples, threesomes and boys.
BCE) of the Indus Valley. According to Dikshit and Rami, the estimation for the aniquity of Bhirrana is based on two calculations of charcoal samples, giving two dates of respectively 7. BCE, and 6. 68. 9- 6. BCE. Cultures. Prior to the excavation of Bhirrana, no Hakra Wares culture, predating the Early Harappan had been exposed in any Indian site. For the first time, the remains of this culture have been exposed at Bhirrana. This culture is characterised by structures in the form of subterranean dwelling pits, cut into the natural soil.
The walls and floor of these pits were plastered with the yellowish alluvium of the Saraswati valley. The artefacts of this period comprised a copper bangle, a copper arrowhead, bangles of terracotta, beads of carnelian, lapis lazuli and steatite, bone point, stone saddle and quern.
The settlement was an open air one with no fortification. The houses were built of mud bricks of buff colour in the ratio of 3: 2: 1. The pottery of this period shows all the six fabrics of Kalibangan - I along with many of the Hakra Wares of the earlier period.
The artifacts of this period include a seal of quarter- foil shape made of shell, arrowheads, bangles and rings of copper, beads of carnelian, jasper, lapis lazuli, steatite, shell and terracotta, pendents, bull figurines, rattles, wheels, gamesmen, and marbles of terracotta, bangles of terracotta and faience, bone objects, sling balls, marbles and pounders of sandstone. Period IIA: Early Mature Harappan Culture: This period is marked by transformation in the city lay- out. The entire settlement was encompassed within a fortification wall.
The twin units of the town planning; Citadel and Lower Town came into vogue. The mud brick structures were aligned with a slight deviation from the true north. The streets, lanes and by- lanes were oriented in similar fashion. The pottery assemblage shows a mixed bag of Early Harappan and Mature Harappan forms.
The artifacts of the period included beads of semi- precious stones (including two caches of beads kept in two miniature pots), bangles of copper, shell, terracotta and faience; fishhook, chisel, arrowhead of copper; terracotta animal figurines and a host of miscellaneous artifacts. Period IIB: Mature Harappan Culture: The last period of occupation at the site belongs to the Mature Harappan period with all the characteristic features of a well- developed Harappan city. The important artifacts of the period consisted of Seals of steatite, bangles of copper, terracotta, faience and shell, inscribed celts of copper, bone objects, terracotta spoked wheels, animal figurines of terracotta, beads of lapis lazuli, carnelian, agate, faience, steatite, terracotta and stone objects. The houses were made of mud bricks (sun- baked bricks).
Wide linear roads can be seen separating the houses. A circular structure of baked earth is probably a . Presence of the baked bricks is seen used in the main drain provided on the width of the northern arm of the fortification wall to flush out the waste water from the houses.
Dancing girl graffiti. Another house had a kitchen, court yards, chullah . Man and Environment xxxi.
Chennai. The Gateway to South India, Chennai, located along the Coromandel Coast initially grew around the British settlement of Fort St. George and is today India's fourth largest metropolis. Chennai has retained its traditional Tamil roots while acquiring a modern and cosmopolitan character. Chennai is famous for its sandy beaches, parks and historic landmarks. With a very distinct culture, the people of Chennai have a special interest in music, dance and all other art forms of South India. Capital of the state of Tamil Nadu and with an estimated population of 6. Chennai is a commercial and industrial hub.
It is also known as the automobile capital of India and is home to a majority of India's automobile industry. The 1. 2- kilometre long Marina Beach in Chennai is one of the longest beaches in the world. Of late, Chennai has grown into a software hub and technological city.
It is a city which has embraced both the new and the old with ease. Chennai is spread over an area of 2. It is a metropolitan city and is recognized as the 4th most populous city in India. Chennai is an ancient city that boosts of its ancient culture and heritage. The city is undisputedly one of the most progressed cities in India. It was also known as the .
Chennai is a land of ancient history that has increased the charm of the city. Before the foreigners arrived, it was the Cholas, Pandyas and the Pallavas who ruled over the present day Chennai. It was the Portuguese who arrived first in the 1. The Dutch and the East India Company followed later.
Within a short period, the British were able to establish their supremacy. The British built the first major British settlement in India that was the nucleus of the colonial city at Fort St.
It later became the major naval base of the British and the south administrative center. After independence, the city became the capital of Tamil Nadu, formerly known as Madras state. Ruled by a succession of South Indian kingdoms, like the Pallava, Chola, Pandya, and Vijaynagar kingdoms, Chennai has attracted to its shores waves of traders, merchants and religious preachers from foreign shores. It traces its roots to a non- descript village named Chennaipatnam, which in 1.
Francis Day and Andrew Cogan, agents for the English East India Company as the site for their settlement. A year later, the Fort St. George was constructed which served as the center around which the settlement grew. Neighboring villages like Triplicane, Purasawalkam, Egmore and Chetput merged with the new settlement to form Chennapatnam, as it was earlier known.
The Portuguese landed in 1. Sao Tome, after the Christian apostle St. The region then came under the Dutch, who established themselves near Pulicat, north of present- day Chennai in 1.
It was granted its first municipal charter in 1. James II and is thus the oldest municipal corporation in India.
Its fortunes alternated between the British and the French. Robert Clive of the British East India Company used it as a base for his military expeditions. It was the seat of the Chennai Presidency, one of the four divisions of British Imperial India. In 1. 74. 6, Fort St George and Madras were captured by the French. The British could regain control of the town only in 1.
The city witnessed a quick growth and was connected to other important cities by rail. After India's independence in 1.
Madras State, which was subsequently renamed Tamil Nadu in 1. It was renamed as Chennai from its earlier name Madras in 1. Chennai enjoys little variation in seasonal temperature and has a hot and humid climate for most of the year due to its proximity to the sea. The average elevation is 6 meters (2. Daytime temperatures in summer range between 3. It gets most of its annual rainfall from the north- east monsoon winds, from mid- October to mid- December. The Cooum (or Koovam) and Adyar rivers flow through the city.
Chennai has several lakes like Red Hills, Sholavaram and Chembarambakkam Lake, which supply the city with potable water. The district is surrounded by other district in the state like the Chengalpattu and Thiruvallur districts, while the Bay of Bengal lies to the east of the city.
The coast stretches around 2. The city district lies between 1. Chennai Culture and Tradition. Chennai has a rich culture and heritage that goes back to thousands of years.
Although today it is a cosmopolitan city that has been industrially progressed and one of the major cities in India, it still has maintained its culture and tradition the way it was since the ancient times. The dance, art, music, festivals, religions are very distinctive of the south India culture. The dance and the classical music are world famous; especially the very famous Bharthanatyam dance form has been recognized the world over for its beautiful grace.
The festivals celebrated here are the Pongal, which is the most important festival here that is celebrated in January and goes on for four days. Apart from the regional festival, national festivals like the Deepavali, Eid and Christmas too are celebrated with fun. The state language is Tamil.
Many people speak English as well as Tamil. Malayalam and Hindi are the other two languages spoken in the city.
Economy and Development Strategies. Chennai has a bustling economy.
The main industries in Chennai are automobile, software services, petrochemicals, textiles, hardware manufacturing and financial services. Since the liberalization of the Indian economy, software development and business process outsourcing have emerged as key sectors of Chennai's economy.
Software giants like TCS, Infosys, Wipro, Cognizant Technology Solutions, Satyam, IBM, Accenture, Sun Microsystems, HCL and others have their presence in Chennai. Many of the leading international names like Dell, Nokia, Motorola, Cisco, Samsung, Siemens, Flextronics and others are already in Chennai or are in the process of setting up shop in the Sriperumbudur electronics SEZ (Special Economic Zone). The city has two biotechnology parks. Many of leading Indian and foreign names in the automotive industry are in Chennai. Companies like Hyundai, Mitsubishi, Ford, TVS, Ashok Leyland, Royal Enfield, TAFE, Dunlop, MRF have plants in and around Chennai The Heavy Vehicles Factory in Avadi in the outskirts of Chennai produces India's main battle tank, Arjun. Chennai is one of the leading Indian cities for banking and finance. It is also home to the Tamil film industry, which is a major revenue earner.
It has a diversified economy with various industries like automobile, software services, hardware, textiles, petrochemicals, medical tourism and many other industries. The Chennai port has played a significant part in the growth of Chennai economy. Another important contribution comes from the entertainment industry or popularly known as cinemas.
The Tamil film industry is the second largest entertainment industry in India and provides a large portion of economy of the state. Banking and finance contribute heavily to the economy as well as it houses three major national level commercial banks and several state level and co- operative banks. Many prominent banks have their headquarters based in Chennai. All these factors have contributed a lot to the economy of the city as well as the state. Tourism in Chennai. Chennai is proud of its long sandy white beaches that are clean and have clear blue water that add to the beauty of the city. There are many interesting places to visit.
One of the most visited towns is Mahabalipuram that has temples and rock carvings dating back to the 7th century. The city witnesses around 6. The various places of Chennai are the Marine beach, temples, Fort St George, parks, museums, National parks like the Guindy national park, which is regarded as the smallest national park comprises of various endangered species which is worth watching. Whether you are looking for temples and monuments or miles of sands along pristine beaches or amusement parks, there is something for everybody, all within easy reach of Chennai. Government Museum : Popular as the Madras Museum, it is the second oldest museum of India. Mahabalipuram: Located around 5.
Chennai, Mahabalipuram was the second capital of the Pallava dynasty, which ruled over many parts of South India. Mahabalipuram is famous for the shore temple, the largest bas- relief in the world known as Arjuna's Penance and the many mandapams. Covelong Beach: Around 4. Chennai, Covelong is famous for its forts, churches, mosques and a picturesque beach. It offers a quick break from the hustle and bustle of Chennai.
The remnants of the fort have been converted into a beach resort offering facilities like windsurfing and swimming. Kanchipuram: Just around 7. Chennai, Kanchipuram is famous for its weaves, which have made it world- famous. Constituting a part of the Golden Triangle of the Coromandel Coast alongwith Chennai and Mahabalipuram, Kanchpuram has been the capital of the Pallava, Chola kingdoms and the rajas of Vijayanagar. It houses famous temples like the 7th- century Kailasanatha Temple and the 1. Ekambareshwara Temple. Muttukadu: If you are looking for a scenic picnic spot and are a water sports enthusiast, Muttukadu, located around 1.
Chennai is the place to head for. Windsurfing and facilities for other water sports are available here. They are kept in natural surroundings and are open to public viewing. Vedanthangal: One of the largest bird sanctuaries in the country, the Vedanthangal bird sanctuary draws thousands of migratory birds every year, especially between November and February. It is approximately a 8. Chennai. Tirupati located in the Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh is one of the most famous religious towns in the entire country.
The Sri Ventateshwara Temple here is said to be the richest Hindu temple in the world and draws the devout from all across the world. Tirupati lies at a distance of approximately 1.
Chennai. Pulicat: It houses an Old Dutch settlement dating back to 1. There are many facilities for water sports enthusiasts and anglers in Pulicat.